- World shipbuilding industry in 2003
The shipping industry is experiencing a new boom. Last year, the delivery of newbuildings was up by more than 9% amounting to 31.4 mn register tons, the largest tonnage delivered since the mid-70-ies. In 1975 the world's shipyards delivered to customers ships 34.2 mn register tons (or 60 mn dwt) in total, an unprecedented record so far. At present, the overall orderbook amounts to 2,416 cargo ships 140.2 mn dwt in total. Most of the newbuildings are scheduled for delivery in 2005. Over half of this fleet in terms of tonnage is tankers (53.3%), followed by bulkers (26.5%) and containerships (17.5%). The small remaining share is general cargo carriers, including reefer ships (1.6%) and ro-ro carriers (1.1%). However, in terms of units the two latter ship types are responsible for a far more significant share of 14%.
- Financing shipbuilding in Russia: problems and possible solutions
The Russian shipbuilding industry is having difficulties meeting the high demand of the national ship owners in new ships due to the limited possibilities it has and the conditions it has to work under. The main reasons are the difficult financial situation of the yards, the specific taxation and banking systems in Russia, and the limited financial resources the country's ship owners have at their disposal.
The major Russian shipyards are Baltic and Admiralty shipyards in St. Petersburg that can build ships up to 60,000-70,000dwt, Yantar in Kaliningrad and Severnaya Verf in St. Petersburg with capacities to build ships up to 15,000dwt, Vyborg Shipyard with capacities to build ships up to 10,000-12,000dwt but focused mainly on drilling rigs construction. Also, the Severodvinsk-based Sevmash has large potential - but no experience - to build ships up to 70,000-80,000dwt.
- State support for national shipbuilding
At present, the national shipbuilding industry incorporates some 100 yards and industrial facilities and 50 research centers and design bureaus. The industry employs about 220 thousand of specialists. In 2002, the production output was worth 40 bn rubles, foreign orders accounting for 60%, state order for 35% and orders for the home market for 5%. The relatively significant share of export deliveries means the Russian yards are still competitive in the global market. However, the existing facilities are utilized at no more than 25% while the key assets in active use are 70% worn out.
The situation was mainly caused by the absence of economic conditions for building ships for the home market in Russia. Russian yards need equal crediting, tax and customs conditions with their foreign counterparts when building ships to fly the Russian flag. Every year Russian shipping companies place abroad orders for building no less than 20-25 sea-going vessels with a displacement of up to 65,000 tons worth no less than $400 mn. These ships could be built at Russian yards if the crediting conditions, taxes and customs dues did not raise the final construction costs for Russian customers by 20-25%.
- China claims leadership in global shipbuilding
In 1998, China accounted for 2.5% of the global shipbuilding market, in 2000 for 5.6% and in 2002 for 12.6%. As the country's shipyards for the first time were awarded foreign orders for an impressive sum of $2.2 bn, western experts forecasted that China's share of the market may grow to 15% within 5 years. However, it looks like China's shipbuilding industry may make it as early as this year. Those at the top of the country's shipbuilding industry believe China will be responsible for 30% to 40% of the world's market by 2015.
At present, there are some 2 thousand shipbuilding and related companies in the country. There are plans to build the world's largest shipyard near Shanghai. There are also plans to develop a shipyard with two docks capable of building ships up to 300,000dwt in Guangzhou, which is to become the major shipbuilding center in South China.
- 90th Anniversary of Nevsky Shipyard
Nevsky Shipyard originates from Schlisselburg ship-repair docks put into operation on the 6th of November, 1913.
Today Nevsky Shipyard production facilities include the following:
- hull construction;
- mechanical construction;
- machinery construction.
During the last 50 years 256 vessels of different types and application have been built. The shipyard is now the only company in Russia producing slip equipment. In 1994 Nevsky Shipyard was the first Russian enterprise to start construction of 'river-sea' class dry-cargo motor ships.
- Croatian shipbuilding industry
The order book of Croatia's shipbuilding industry currently rates the fifth largest in the world after those of South Korea, Japan, China and Taiwan. In the past 50 years, Croatian shipyards delivered over 900 ships 21 mn dwt in total to customers in over 70 countries.
The country's shipyards and dockyards are incorporated into the Croatian shipbuilding corporation HRVATSKA BRODOGRADNJA-JADRANBROD d.d. Ships are built at three large yards, ULJANIK, 3.MAJ and BRODOSPLIT (the latter has a special purpose yard among its facilities) and three smaller yards, BRODOTROGIR, KRALJEVICA and VIKTOR LENAC. The latter is one of the leading dockyards in the Mediterranean. Russia and Croatia have a long history of cooperation in the shipbuilding sphere. During the almost 40 years of partnership, over 200 ships 3.5 mn dwt in total have been built in Croatia for Russia, Georgia, Latvia and Azerbaijan.
- Russian shipbuilding industry: choosing the course
Commercial shipbuilding today is a common market where macroeconomic processes define the demand for ships. Since 1994, the carrying volumes of ocean shipping have been steadily growing worldwide. This has a positive effect on the Russian shipbuilding market, which is expanding. Baltic Shipyard, one of the market leaders, in 1959-1978 built 43 oil tankers, mainly for British, German, Swedish and Norwegian customers. In 1995-1997 the yard delivered four 5,800dwt chemical tankers to a German customer. This allowed of implementing the technology of treating and welding hull details and pipes made of stainless (duplex) steels. This year the yard is completing the construction of two chemtankers for the German Transocean Shipmanagement and two hulls for river chemtankers for the Dutch Rensen B.V. At present, the yard is completing the construction of the nuclear powered icebreaker "50 Let Pobedy", the fifth in a series.
- About the nuclear powered icebreaker "50 Let Pobedy" and more…
The nuclear powered icebreaker "50 Let Pobedy" currently under construction at Baltic Shipyard in St. Petersburg is the sixth in the series of the second generation atomic icebreakers (Arktika Type) and the fourth built to the modernized Design 10521. The nuclear powered icebreaker "50 Let Pobedy" significantly differs from its younger sisterships due to the state of the art technical and engineering solutions used in the project. The displacement of this decker 159.6m LOA, 30m axis, 11m draft is some 25,000 tons. The icebreaker is powered by two nuclear electric power plants with a total capacity of 75,000h.p. The speed in open water is 18 knots, the icebreaking capacity is 3 meters at a speed of 2 knots. To improve the icebreaking capacity, the basic function of an icebreaker, "50 Let Pobedy" has been equipped with a turbo-supercharging anti-freezing device, the ice belt has been strengthened with clad steel, and the bow contour has been improved. "50 Let Pobedy" is 9.6m longer than "Yamal", which preceded it. This allows for installing additional ecological equipment to comply with all the requirements of environmental services.
- Admiralty Shipyard Serving Motherland for 300 years
During almost 300 yaers of operating, over 2,000 ships of many types were constructed at the Shipyard. Those include 298 nuclear and diesel-electric submarines, 48 tankers and 17 ice-breakers. Today the enterprise has at its disposal two open stocks, five slipways with roofs and two floating docks which enable construction of first-class ships up to 70,000 tones deadweight. Among of priorities of Admiralty Shipyard are building, modernization and design of different types of commercial vessels.
The enterprise is currently working on contract from "Sevcomflot" JSC for construction of a family of tankers for food transportation with 47 tones deadweight.
The shipyard is also involved in building of deep submercibles. The first third generation deep submercible "Russ" capable of diving 6,000 meters is being currently modernized to fit the latest requirements of crew safety.
- Russian defense industry giant sets course for civil shipbuilding
All enterprises of the Russian defense industry faced the issue of conversion in the 1990-s, and each searched for their own solution to the problem. The Severodvinsk-based Sevmashpredpriyatie, Russia's number one submarine building yard, is an example of how a state owned defense plant can combat the crisis and win.
This August Sevmash successfully completed the construction of two ASD 3110 tugs and six Mini Cat 803 tugs designed and ordered by Damen. All in all, Sevmash has built over eighty tugs of eight different designs as well as several ship hulls of deep-sea LR +100A Container-CARRIER mini-bulkers with an immersion of 4,250 tons for carrying containers on deck and breakbulk cargo in holds, and 100 5A1 ORE-CARRIER river barges with an immersion of 2,770 tons.
The successful experience of cooperation with Damen Shipyards has allowed the company to conclude a profitable contract with the Swedish Promaris for completing the construction of eight deep-sea LR + 100A1 pontoons with an immersion of 9,750 tons for carrying cargo on deck, off-shore structures and floating berths to serve them.
- OMZ onshore and offshore
- Vyborgsky Shipyard presents activities and long-term outlook
During the last three years, eight catching trawler hulls for Norwegian customers, one rescue vessel designed by Norwegian developpers were constructed and nine ships were reequipped at the Vyborgsky Shipyard. Right now another two trawlers (one of them 94 meters length to be the world's largest of the kind) are being constructed there. Western shipyards place contructs for hulls with Vyborgsky Shipyard and finish building ships at their own facilities.
Back in 1980's the company was completely reoriented to build drilling platforms for oil and gas exploration and production in sea shelf. The first Russian semisubmersible floating drilling platforms for open sea and jack-up drilling rigs were built there.
- British Lloyd assessing Russian shipbuilding industry
Lloyd's Register of Shipping was the first foreign classification societiy to enter the Russian market. It opened an office in Moscow in 1991, and offices in St. Petersburg and Novorossiysk in 1993. It also has a local office at Volgograd Shipyards in Volgograd.
During the 12 years of Lloyd's Register's presence in Russia it supervised the construction of 18 ships (10 dry cargo freighters and 8 tankers) to full LR class. This does not include 'semi-finished' units to be completed at foreign yards and support ships like tugboats and pontoons. In November 2003, the Admiralty Shipyards will deliver to Sovcomflot the lead ships in the series of 6 product tankers 47,000 tons capacity. LR supervises the construction of hulls for chemical tankers for a Dutch customer at Baltic Shipyards in St. Petersburg and in Volgograd. In Astrakhan, hulls of containerships and tankers are built under the supervision of LR. Lloyd's Register has been cooperating for several years with "Sevmashpredpriyatie" in building hulls for tugboats and mini-bulkers for the Dutch Damen Shipyards. Intro-Pella Shipyard based in Leningrad Oblast has recently delivered to Commercial Sea Port of St. Petersburg its third new generation tugboat. In Kerch, Ukraine, LR is supervising the construction of several ship hulls for a Dutch customer.
- Russia's icebreaking fleet development prospects: joint stock company to be established
The number of icebreaking services users is currently growing. Thus, LUKoil JSC is increasing oil export from the Sea of Pechora (Varandey). Rosneft Oil Co is planning to start oil export from the Prirazlomnoe oil field in 2005. GAZPROM JSC is to start the industrial exploitation of the Yamal oil fields (Bovanenkovo, Kharasavey, and, later, Tambey) in 2004. The cargo flows to/from Dudinka (shipped by Norilsk Nickel JSC) have stabilized. All this testifies to the necessity of establishing an independent company to manage the icebreaking fleet and offer its services indiscriminately to all customers.
Increasing the shipping volume in West Arctic up to 15 mn tons per annum without expanding the existing ice classed fleet is possible provided the icebreakers' atomic steam generating devices undergo modernization, which will put off their phase-out deadline until 2015. Also, the construction of the atomic icebreaker "50 Let Pobedy" must be completed.
- Russian-Italian co-operation in modern marine engineering
The Central research institute Electropribor is a member of a group in the framework of the Russian-Italian intergovernmental commission for co-operation in military engineering. Taking part in the group's activities, the Russian research center in co-operation with the Italian Marconi Selenia Communications S.p.A. developed a pilot system for a Russian-Italian integrated board-to-shore radio and shipboard communications module based on network solutions. The pilot system is aimed at demonstrating the advantages of the state-of-the art shipboard communications systems used by the NATO countries that are some 10-20 years ahead of the similar Russian systems. The pilot system incorporates Russian made radio equipment and terminal devices with the management and a commutation system that has no analogues in Russian shipbuilding and was bought from Marconi.
- Civil atomic powered fleet in Russia: present and future
Today, Russia has the largest in the world civil atomic powered fleet, which includes eight operating atomic icebreakers (1 lighter carrier and 7 icebreakers). The Russian atomic powered fleet is state owned and since 2003 has been managed by Murmansk Shipping Co JSC. In August 2003, the contract for icebreaking fleet management concluded by the Ministry of Property and MSCo in 1998, expired. At present, governmental structures, large financial industrial groups and transportation companies are competing for the right to manage the atomic icebreakers. What is in store for Russia's atomic powered fleet?
- New management conditions dictate new approaches to technical safety of shipping
The year 2003 has been crucial for the Russian Register of Inland Shipping, as this year the new Rules entered into force. The Rules in four volumes published in 2002 replaced the version of 1995.
W.e.f. January 1, 2003, the Russian Register of Inland Shipping introduced Guidelines R.002-2002 "Modernization of river and river-sea going ships".
Another important step in the classification activities of the Russian Register of Inland Shipping towards stimulating fleet modernization was introducing w.e.f. July 30, 2003, the new Guidelines R.003-2003 "Construction of river and river-sea going ships using components of used ships". These Guidelines allow of significantly reducing the capital costs in shipbuilding by using serviceable components of phased-out ships. Ships, thus built, will be classified by the Russian Register of Inland Shipping as new, which will involve all the advantages of this status when operating, presenting for inspection, chartering out or insuring them. The Guidelines contain requirements of designing and building ships with a limited projected service life of 15 and 20 years and allow of building such ships with a service life other than listed above.
- Merchant shipping under threat of piracy
The cruelty of pirates' attacks on merchant ships is growing and so is their number. The world was shaken as Peter Blake, the best known yachtsman in the history and the new captain of the research ship "Calipso-2", fell victim of a pirates' gang on the Amazon. This year the number of attacks is expected to break the record. In Half 1 2003, 234 piracy attacks were registered, by 37% more than during the first six months of 2002. This is the highest figure ever recorded by the International Maritime Bureau (IMB) since it started keeping record in 1991. During H1 of 2003, 16 crew members of the ships attacked were killed, 52 were wounded and 20 went missing. The number of crew members taken hostage doubled to 193, and the number of incidents of armed robbery increased dramatically.
- Substandard shipping: problems and solutions through partnership
In October 2003, the Russian Maritime Register of Shipping held the 4th International seminar on "Sub-standard shipping: problems and solutions through partnership. Maritime safety and security - the way to sub-standard shipping elimination". Today, the global terror threat has expanded from shore to sea. Ships that have fallen into the hands of terrorists may become a deadly weapon. That is why the maritime community has adopted the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code, which enters into force since July 1, 2004. The ISPS Code is aimed at forming an international body to discover terror threat and take measures to prevent incidents of violating the security of ships and port facilities. In the light of the global terror threat, eliminating sub-standard shipping becomes an issue of special importance and the only choice. Adopting the ISPS Code clears the way to developing common legislation to fight terrorism and extremism and unifying national legislations.
- Russia out of Paris MoU's black list
Following the results of the 2000-2002 inspection of Russian flagged ships, the Russian Federation was able to leave the black list of the Paris Memorandum. Taking into account the average age of the Russian fleet this is definitely the merit of the State merchant marine service, which has put into practice the program of enforced state control over ships in international trade. Russia's updated state port control system, aimed at preventing ships that do not comply with the requirements from leaving the port, is functioning successfully. The trend towards the number of detentions of Russian ships in Paris MoU ports decreasing manifested itself in 2000. While the number of Russian ships detained at European ports in 1997-1999 made 1.65 of the permissible level, in 1998-2000 it went down to 1.37, in 1999-2001 to 1.04, and in 2000-2002 to 0.67.
- Fourth after third
After handing Basin No 3 of the Baltic Navy Base over to the to RF Ministry of Transport, the RF Ministry of Defense handed over also Basin No 4, located near Basin 3. The both basins have been neglected for a long time. Thus, the Transport Ministry in the person of the Kaliningrad Port Authority has moved a step closer to launching the rail ferry terminal in 2005 as commissioned by the RF President.
- Suez Canal
The Suez Canal linking the Red Sea with the Mediterranean is one of the world's most important man-made waterways. The Canal is no less than 15m deep and allows a fully loaded oilker with a 12m draft to pass. The Canal stretches 163km long between Port Said in the North and Suez in the South and is 169m at the widest. Currently, 56 ships pass the Suez daily. The average income Egypt earns on the Suez amounts to $1.5 bn. Private operators are allowed to serve only smaller ships up to 1.5 thousand tons of immersion, while all larger ships, tankers and warships are served by state-owned companies. The minimal sum of dues for passing the Suez amounts to $6-10 thousand for a small ship. A large tanker or an aircraft carrier has to pay up to $1 bn.
- Second Maritime Forum of Russia
In September St. Petersburg played host to the Second Maritime Forum of Russia. Over 300 representatives of Russian shipping companies, Port Authorities, commercial seaports, dockyards, educational establishments and other maritime industry structures attended the event. The main aim of the Forum was drawing up the result of fulfilling the recommendations of the First Maritime Forum held in 1998, assessing the current condition of the Russian merchant fleet and defining the top priorities for developing the fleet and the material technical basis for the maritime sector. Such forums are necessary for the authorities to receive feedback from business circles.
- State management at seaports under reform
The session of the RF Transport Ministry Board of August 20, 2003, discussed the reform of the state port management system. The key point of the reform is dividing commercial functions from administrative authorities by establishing the federal state enterprise Sea Ports Authority empowered with administrative authorities and the state unitary enterprise Rosmorport authorized to operate and develop the federal property at seaports, including navigation safety systems. The port authority reform envisages establishing Basin Seaport Authorities with branch offices at ports subordinate to harbour masters of respective ports. Harbour masters will report to the Navigation Safety Department of the State Merchant Marine Service. The Sea Ports Authority is to start functioning in Quarter 1 of 2004.
- New leasing conditions for Russian seaports
The RF Ministry of Transport and the RF Ministry of Property have worked out draft Regulations of property management by Rosmorport Federal State Unitary Enterprise. The document defines the rules of transferring property to Rosmorport, the methodology of calculating the rent for quays and maintenance expenses.
The draft Regulations provide for concluding two contracts, one for paying rent to the budget and the other for reinstating the running maintenance costs for the property rented. The RF Transport Ministry suggests defining the state income as the earnings related to the maintenance of port property. The new methodology defines the profit rate at a normative level of profitability in the industry of 17%. It also introduced indices to differentiate the rent depending on the port's geographic location and the cargoes it handles.
Ocean and shelf exploration
- New materials for exploring Arctic
Prometey Central Research Institute started developing materials for deep-sea oil and gas drilling rigs, technologies of their manufacture and production certification as early as in the 1980s. These materials were used to build 12 fixed submersible drilling rigs of the "Caspian" type and 10 drilling rigs of the "Shelf" type, including 2 fixed submersible rigs ("Sakhalin" and "Kola") built in cooperation with Finland.
Drilling rigs for carbohydrate extraction are complicated and metal consuming engineering structures. It takes 100,000 to 150,000 tons of rolled metal to construct a rig. The choice of a steel depends on the type of the structure and the load its units bear, as well as on the exterior conditions.
To ensure long and reliable functioning of the rig, clad steel with an outer non-corrosive alloy coating and the basic layer of low-alloyed steel, is seen as an optimal decision.
Go to archive for 2003
# 6(6), 2003
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